Historia Collie

 

Owczarek szkocki collie prawdopodobnie pochodzi od starożytnego psa pasterskiego. Rzymianie zaczęli importować na Wyspy Brytyjskie silne psy do pilnowania bydła, koni i owiec. Miały one nieprzemakalny, krótki, gęsty i szorstki włos okrywy, oraz miękki podszerstek chroniący je przed zimnym, wilgotnym klimatem angielskim. W czasie następnych wieków krzyżowano je z psami przybyłymi z terenów Afryki Północnej w celu wyhodowania psów o lepszym, spokojniejszym temperamencie i bardziej podatnych na tresurę.

ślady collie w postaci zbliżonej do współczesnej można znaleźć na Wyspach Brytyjskich w XVI wieku. Szkoccy pasterze bardzo przyczynili się do rozwoju ich eksterieru, charakteru i temperamentu jako psów pasterskich.

Pierwsza nazwa colley, prawdopodobnie pochodzi od anglo-saksońskiego słowa col- czarny, taka wła?nie była pierwotna ma?ć tej rasy.

Pierwsza wystawa, na której pokazano collie w klasie psów pasterskich wszystkich odmian miała miejsce w Birmingham w 1860 roku.

śniady collie o nazwie OLD COCKIE po raz pierwszy pojawił się w 1872 roku w Birmingham.

Następnym przełomowym okresem w hodowli collie był rok 1873, kiedy to urodził się SCOT, opisany przez wła?ciciela p. Arkwrighta jako srebrno-niebieski z czarnymi plamami, białym kołnierzem i jednym rybim okiem. SCOT pokrył sukę RUSSETT. Najlepsza suka z tego miotu została pokryta psem RED BREAST. Suczka z tego miotu BLUE ROSE została pokryta swoim dziadkiem SCOTEM.

Z tego skojarzenia urodziły się dwa szczenięta blue-merle: pies BLUE SKY uważany w ówczesnych czasach za najlepszego psa tej ma?ci, oraz sukę BLUE THISITLE, która urodziła przepiękną sukę BLUE RUIN, która została sprzedana do Ameryki w 1890 roku. Jednym z najlepszych reproduktorów blue-merle w tym okresie był MASTER MERLEDALE, dał on wielu zwycięzców m.in. Southport SKAY, Young MERLEDALE, Yardley BLUE JUMBO, Yardley BLUE DAISY.

Od 1909 roku nastąpił duży rozkwit hodowli collie blue-merle. Zaczęto dążyć do uzyskania najbardziej prawidłowego merle. Okazało się to wcale nie łatwe. Dlatego psy o tym umaszczeniu sprzedawano za ogromne pieniądze.

W 1910 roku urodził się pierwszy angielski champion blue-merle Porchester BLUE SOL.

Rzadkością wśród collie jest umaszczenie białe, jeden taki pies SQUIRE był w psiarni wielkiej miłośniczki owczarków szkockich Królowej Wiktorii.

 

 

[The following article was written by Hazel Hunt (Collins) of the "Rifflesea" Affix at the request of "Dog's Monthly" and is reproduced from the 1983 edition of "The International Collie Handbook" with some corrections by Hazel in November 2000].

From the day the first wild dog crept into man’s cave for warmth and comfort, or more probably was carried home as a puppy abandoned by the pack, the dog has enjoyed a special relationship with him. In those far off days, when man was the hunter and gatherer, the dog’s speed and hunting ability converted him into an extra weapon in man’s struggle for survival. Later, as he became the sower and reaper, the dog was used to guard man’s property and warn him of approaching enemies. It was much later still, when man gave up hunting and turned to rearing his own animals, that the ever-adaptable dog began to serve man in a new way.

No longer was the dog selected for his size and ferocity, but rather for his agility, his patience, and his ability to listen and obey. Nothing is known of these early herding dogs. Unlike the nobleman’s hound or guard dog, the humble field dog performed his work unheralded and unsung. There is no doubt that the Collie’s gentle tractable nature developed from the work he was selected to do. No other breed works in such willing partnership with man. The Collie’s eye is always on his master, alert for some signal, his ears semi-pricked to catch some command. His long plumy tail is used to balance him on the quick turns and change of direction his work requires. His thick coat is essential to protect him from the harsh environment. The sweet expression (so prized in the exhibition Collie ) was indicative of a kind and patient nature, in dealing with stock. Nowhere was this type of dog developed more successfully than in Scotland and the Border Counties.

One man and his dog

The miles that the working sheepdog covers in the course of a day are quite astonishing. In that admirable television programme, " One Man and his Dog", Phil Drabble once asked a shepherd how many miles his dog covered in a day and was told that the shepherd walked thirty miles, and his dog at least three times as much. In Victorian days, the dogs were considered so sagacious, that if a shepherd ordered his dog to go home from Smithfield Market, it would instantly return to Scotland. This is not such a remarkable feat as it first seems when you consider that Smithfield was then on the outskirts of London, and generations of drovers and their dogs had followed the same trail from Scotland, driving their animals and living off the land as they went. There must have been more than one Collie, tired of hanging around the taverns of Smithfield and knowing that there was work to be done at home, who retraced his steps without any order from his master! He travels fastest who travels alone, and without the slow moving livestock to hamper him, the dog could be back in Scotland within a fortnight.

"Lassie Come Home"

There is no doubt that apart from his keen sight and hearing, the Collie has a very highly developed homing instinct. "Lassie Come Home" is largely based on fact. It is absolutely essential for anyone buying an adult Collie to keep it securely confined until it adjusts to its new home, rather as in the case of homing pigeons. In present day traffic conditions there is very little chance of the dog reaching home.

The Collie might have remained forever a humble herding dog had it not been for the advent of dog shows. In 1860, the Birmingham National Dog Show Society put on a class for " Herding Dogs. " From then on, interest grew rapidly. When Queen Victoria brought back several Collies from Balmoral they quickly became fashionable. Two black and tan Collies from the Queen’s kennels were exported to America and aroused
tremendous interest there. Tricolour or blue merle were the usual colours and all our present day Collies can trace their ancestry back to the tricolour, "Trefoil ", born in 1873. The sable colouring was introduced by a dog- called "Old Cockie" and this colour was as rare then as it is in Border Collies today.

High prices began to be paid for the best specimens, both in this country and in America where the rival fanciers J.Pierpoint Morgan and Sam Untermeyer vied with each other to buy the best English Collies. In England, Mr. Megson paid £500 for Ch. Metchley Wonder who five times won for him the Collie Club Challenge Trophy between 1887 and 1892. He proved to be a great sire and probably his best son was Ch. Christopher, sold to America for £1000. Mr. Megson purchased Ch. Southport Perfection for £1,005 and Ch. Ormskirk Emerald for £1.300. Meanwhile, in America, the imported English dogs continued to beat the American home-breds. $5.000 was paid for Ch. Sefton Hero and an incredible $10.000 for Ch. Wishaw Clinker. These are high prices at today’s value; in those days when the annual wage was approximately £50, such prices were astronomical. The highest price ever obtained was the amount reputed to have been paid for Ch. Parbold Piccolo, who had already sired six Champions in England. including the incomparable


Champion Christopher – Born 1887

 

Ch. Anfield Model, before he left these shores. Piccolo appeared such a friendly happy dog when he arrived at his new home in Milwaukee, that he was given his freedom. He disappeared the same day, no doubt trying to find his own way home, and was never seen again. It was a shattering blow to American breeders.

Perfection

It is noticeable that every decade or so, breeders produce an outstanding dog that raises the whole Breed to a new level of perfection. Such a dog was Ch. Anfield Model, whose photographs show him to be a dog of such beauty of head and expression that he could hold his own with today’s Collies. His blood was much sought after on both sides of the Atlantic.

It was around 1912 that the first Laund Champion made its appearance. It was the first of some sixty Champions produced by Mr. W.W.Stansfield. Some of the most notable were Ch. Laund Limitless, Ch. Laund Logic, and Ch. Laund Lukeo. Many were exported to the U.S.A. and Ch. Laund Lero was the first to win the Working Group at the prestigious Westminster Show. All offers were refused for the Smooth Collie, Ch. Laund Lynne, winner of sixteen C.C.’s and nearly three hundred first prizes, as she was the constant companion of his daughter, now Mrs. Ada Bishop. She has carried on the Laund tradition since her father’s death and has had several post-war Champions including, Ch. Laund Livia, Ch. Laund Luscombe and Ch. Laund Lucigard.

In 1921, the great English sire, Ch. Magnet, was exported to the U.S.A. at the age of nine years. He still had time to sire two American Champions, but his greatest influence there was through his grandson, Ch. Eden Emerald, exported by Mr Fred Robson. Emerald’s great grandson was the immortal Ch. Honeybrook Big Parade from whom most of the winning U.S.A. Collies are descended, particularly through his grandson Ch. Silver Ho Parader, sire of no fewer than thirty- seven Champions.

Champion Magnet – Born 1912.

String of Champions

In England Mr. Robson was producing a string of Champions such as Ch. Eden Extra, Ch. Eden Elegance and Ch. Eden Elenora. At the end of the last war he was still a force to be reckoned with, producing such lovely bitches as Ch. Eden Enchanting and Ch. Eden Endearing, and the most influential Collie of them all, Eden Examine, winner of one C.C. Three powerful kennels – the Launds, the Seedleys, and the Backwoods, had dominated the 1920s and 1930s. Mr. F. Ball brought out Ch. Backwoods Fellow, considered by many as the most perfect Collie yet seen. This dog was to have a great influence on the Beulah kennel of Mrs. N.K. George. She was very proud of the fact that all her sable Champions traced their ancestry back through Fellow to the founder, Trefoil, in direct tail-male descent. The Beulahs were noted for their size, substance and immense coats.

Champion Backwoods Fellow – Born 1930

 

Unlike the majority of breeders who had been forced to reduce their kennels to one or two dogs through the war years, Mrs. George (a somewhat autocratic lady ) managed to keep her kennel of thirty Collies intact. She had her own ideas about breeding Collies, such as that good coats could only be obtained by keeping the dogs in heated kennels, puppies should not be allowed on grass or they would get worms, and long tails could only be achieved by good feeding as that was the last place the nourishment reached! Shades of the Heineken advertisements!
During the war Ch. Beulah’s Golden Sultan and Ch. Beulah’s Silver Don Mario were sent out to the U.S.A. where they quickly gained their titles. Before he left Don Mario was to sire one litter of great significance, for it contained the big winning Lyncliffe Lancer, bred and shown by Mr. & Mrs.Cliffe. It was his son, the shaded sable, Eden Examine, who was one of the three post-war sires who were to dominate British post-war breeding. The other two were Ch. Mywicks Meadow Lancer and Dazzler of Dunsinane.

Mr. Robson continued his great influence on both sides of the Atlantic. At the beginning of the war he had sent out the elegant tri, Ch.Eden Diadem who was to prove a great sire in the States. In England he left a blue merle son, Maroel Blue Mandarin, who had the unusual attribute of dark, instead of the normal wall eyes of the blue merle. Mated to my Beulah’s Night Flare daughter of the great Beulah’s Night Victorious, only one puppy survived an attack by the mother, and she became Lilac of Ladypark, from whom all the lovely dark eyed, beautifully coloured Shiel Champions were bred by Miss P. Osborne.


Foresight to Combine

Immediately the war was over Miss P.M.Grey left her post of hospital matron and devoted all her time to her Ladypark Collies. She had the foresight to combine the refined headed Collies of the North, with the bone, coats and soundness of the Southern Beulah Collies. She purchased from Mrs. George an eight week old sable bitch puppy, later to become Ch. Beulah’s Golden Flora, who was sent to Eden Examine. Success was instant. Out of the first litter came Dr. and Mrs. K.Collin’s shaded sable Ch. Lad of Ladypark, out of the second came her own much loved golden, Ch. Lochinvar of Ladypark.

Ch. Lad sired six Champions including the very sound, showy golden Ch. Ugony’s Golden Son O’ Lad of Rifflesea. Son O’ Lad had an unfortunate propensity for poaching and to save him being shot by an irate gamekeeper, it was considered wiser to return him to his breeder, Miss D. M. Young. In her hands he quickly amassed eleven C.C.’s and was the only Collie to go Reserve Best in Show at a Championship Show. He was influential in producing some eight or nine Champions for her, culminating in the lovely Ch. Collydene That’s My Sheila of Ugony, a C.C. winner as a puppy and now the winner of eight certificates.

Lad’s other famous son was the tri, Rifflesea Royalist, out of the mother of Lilac of Ladypark. Miss Maloney and Miss Osborne did some very nice line breeding to this dog and he was to sire the merle, Ch. Westcarrs Blue Minoru, whose influence in merles is still very much in evidence. Frank Mitchell founded his highly successful Glenmist kennel on a sable bitch by Ch. Lad out of Ch. Rose of Ladypark, which he purchased from Dr. and Mrs. Collins at the age of eight weeks. She was called Ch. Rifflesee Reward of Glenmist C.D.Ex. Not only did she win her show and obedience titles but was also the dam of three Champions for him, of whom the most notable was probably Ch. Sapphire of Glenmist. Sapphire, when mated back to Rifflesee Royalist produced Ch. Lovely Lady and Ch. Pattingham Gay Lady of Glenmist, who was the dam of the great Ch. Pattingham Pacemaker who made history by winning the Working Group at Crufts.

Such Quality

About this time, Mrs Aileen Speding’s Antocs came to the fore, founded largely on Glenmist and Larkena breeding, and producing such quality Collies as Ch. Antoc The Vicar of Bray, Ch. Antoc The Boyfriend and the big winning tri, and very successful sire, Ch. Antoc Midnight Cowboy.

Lochinvar sired no fewer than twenty six Champions at home and abroad and for a decade the Ladypark Collies of Miss Grey dominated the show scene. Some of the best were Ch. Liberty of Ladypark, Ch. Lena of Ladypark, Ch. Libretto of Ladypark and the lovely headed Ch. Limpid of Ladypark. Their influence was felt worldwide.

Eden Examine was to have another influential son in Abbot of Arranbeck, the fore-runner of all the Dunsinane Collies for Mrs. Audrey Chatfield. From this kennel, founded on two bitches, Rifflesea Rowena and Ch. Rifflesee Regality of Dunsinane, came a stream of Dunsinane Champions that have won for their breeder over fifty C.C.’s and have had a tremendous impact on Collies all over the World.

Examine’s great grandson, Ch. Mywicks Meadow Lancer was a shaded sable that perhaps lacked a little in body and coat, but was possessed with a beauty of head and expression that was a revelation to breeders. Once again, we had a sire that was to raise the Breed to new levels. He was the sire of one of the most successful tri-colours ever bred, the lovely Ch. Satine of Simbastar, but it was through his prepotent sons that he was to make his greatest contribution.


Beautifully Coloured

Amongst the earliest of these was Albergo of Aberthorne, owned by Mr. J. Tait and a great influence in his strain. One of the most notable was Mr. & Mrs. Jeffries’, Ch. Jefsfire Lucky by Name, whose contribution has not always been recognised. He sired five Champions including the magnificent tricolour Ch. Thistleblue Bluelands Boy who started the successful tail male line of Ch. Bririch Black Kelno, Ch. Blue Rock of Bririch and Ch. Bririch Blue Unit for Mrs. Hickson.

Meadow Lancer also sired Ch. Rhodelands Boy who in turn sired one of the most elegant and beautifully coloured merles ever whelped, the great Ch. Carramar Boy Blue (ten C.C.’s ), who was the sire of seven Champions and who is behind several of the most successful merle kennels, notably the Clickhams and the Stelroys.

Ch. Duntiblae Dog Watch was another sable sired by Meadow Lancer who carried on the line for Mrs. Cochrane, with his son, Ch. Duntiblae Dog Star and grandson, Ch. Duntiblae Dingo. All these lines have been influential but it was through Ch. Defender of Dunsinane and Ch. Dorgano Demander of Dunsinane that Eden Examine was to have his most permanent effect. It came in the shape of a small and somewhat insignificant looking sable called Dazzler of Dunsinane, who passed on a most beautiful type to his ten Champion children. The success of his sons as sires is quite astonishing. It has been calculated that 80% of all winners are descended from them. Mrs. Eglin’s Ch. Royal Ace of Rokeby sired no fewer than twelve Champions and a most dominant tail male line was established through his son Ch. Biririch Gold Edition down through Ch. Kidlaine Konrad, Ch. Aberthorne Arrester, Ch. Mybern’s Minstrel and his two sons, Ch. Brilyn Super Tramp and Ch.Mybern’s Mundane.

Dazzler’s son Ch. Ramsey of Rokeby was noted for the sweet expressions he passed on to his ten Champion offspring, and a line of great sires has come from him, particularly through Ch. Brettonpark Whatzizname.

Sangreat Sorrocco and Ch. Ch. Arranbrook Mr. Chips of Aberhill, who is already the sire of eight Champions. Geoff Mildon’s Ch. Westlyn Wayside Boy of Geoffdon is another son of Ramsey’s who has sired no less than six Champions. The tri-colour son Ramsey, Ch. Corydon Quinault has had a great influence for good on the Breed, both here and in Australia. Dazzler’s son Sandiacre Softly Softly, winner of one C.C. was a sire noted for the lovely bitches he produced and sired in all five Champions.

Amongst other Dazzler sons were Ch. Dunsinane Robin Hood of Rokeby and Brettonpark Highlander of Dunsinane. Highlander was the sire of eight Champions of whom the most successful sires have been Ch. Drum Major of Dunsinane, Ch. Jefsfire Clean Sweep and Pelido Black Prince. The roll of honour is not yet complete and fresh names are still being added to Dazzler’s record.

In these days when fashionable new breeds are constantly being introduced into Britain, it is good to know that our native Collie, can hold its own in the popularity stakes. From those few working dogs of a hundred and twenty years ago, the modern show Collie has spread to all corners of the World. Britain is still the acknowledged source of the best dogs and the numerous Collies that have left these shores and become Champions in their new countries, testify to the skill and integrity of British breeders.

 

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